Inflammatory markers are substances that are produced by the body in response to inflammation. They are generally proteins that are released into the blood or tissue in order to help fight infection and promote healing. Some examples of inflammatory markers include C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). These markers can be measured through blood tests and they can be used to help diagnose and monitor conditions such as arthritis, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.
Written by Christina Eng Physiotherapist, Clinical Pilates Instructor
Inflammatory markers are substances that are produced by the body in response to inflammation. They can be found in the blood, urine, and tissues. Inflammatory markers are used to diagnose and monitor inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, lupus, and Crohn’s disease.
There are a variety of inflammatory markers that can be measured, each of which provides information about different aspects of the inflammatory process. The most commonly measured inflammatory marker is C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is produced by the liver in response to inflammation. It is a measure of general inflammation and has been shown to be a predictor of heart disease risk. Other common inflammatory markers include erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell count (WBC), and fibrinogen.
While CRP is a good marker of general inflammation, it does not provide information about specific areas of the body that may be inflamed. For this reason, other tests such as ESR or WBC may be ordered along with CRP to help pinpoint the location of inflammation. Fibrinogen is another protein that is increased in response to inflammation and can also help identify the presence of an active inflammatory process.
Inflammatory markers are important tools that can help doctors diagnose and monitor inflammatory conditions. However, they should not be used alone to make decisions about treatment or assess risk for heart disease or other diseases associated with chronic inflammation.
Phase 1: Inflammatory Response. Healing of acute injuries begins with the acute vascular inflammatory response
The inflammatory response is the body’s first line of defense against invading microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses. The inflammatory response is a complex process that involves many different cells and proteins.
The first step in the inflammatory response is the release of chemicals, such as histamine and prostaglandins, from damaged cells. These chemicals increase blood flow to the area of injury and cause the nearby blood vessels to become more permeable. This allows white blood cells and other immune system cells to move out of the bloodstream and into the tissues where they are needed.
Once in the tissues, these immune system cells release more chemicals that help to destroy invading microorganisms. At the same time, these chemicals also help to stimulate repair processes that begin to heal tissue damage.
The inflammatory response is a complex process that involves many different cells and proteins. The first step in this response is the release of chemicals from damaged cells which help to increase blood flow and allow white blood cells access to injured tissues. Once there, these immune system cells work to destroy invading microbes while also helping to stimulate repair processes that heal tissue damage.
Phase 3: Remodelling and Maturation
In the final stage of wound healing, the body works to repair and replace damaged tissue. This process is known as remodelling and maturation.
During remodelling, the body produces new collagen and elastin fibers to replace those that were lost during the injury. This helps the wound heal with minimal scarring. It can take several months for the skin to return to its normal strength and appearance.
Maturation is a slower process that can take up to 2 years. In this stage, the body continues to produce new collagen fibers and blood vessels. The wound becomes smaller and less noticeable as it matures.